Ingredient Studies

CBD

While not being a panacea, CBD has a staggering number of benefits: It Inhibits enzymes that break down anti-inflammatory signaling molecules (anandamide). It Targets vanilloid receptors (TRPV1 and TRPA1) which are antagonist to pain signaling pathways. And it Suppresses collagen breakdown proteins (GPR55) in joints which are caused by later stage arthritis. (source)

Peppermint

Along with menthol, which is extracted from mint, peppermint has been used for thousands of years topically in order to treat muscle and joint pain. When peppermint is applied to skin, the temperature sensitive neurons (known as TRP receptors) detect the skin temperature differential. This, in turn, produces an anti-inflammatory response. (source)

Helichrysum

Known for its ability to treat neurological pain, helichrysum utilizes inhibitory action of pro-inflammatory signals (COX and PLA2). This is the same method of action as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Aspirin) and Corticosteroids. (source)

Copiaba resin

Copiaba resin is as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. Inhibits the activation of microglia, which, if allowed to break down neuronal cells, will release pro-inflammatory substances into the body. (source)

Ginger Oil

Ginger oil, made from ginger root, relieves the symptoms of arthritis by reducing joint swelling and, in the later stages of arthritis, joint tissue breakdown. (source)

Lavender Oil

When applied topically, lavender oil is shown to decrease back pain and significantly improve joint movement, specifically in the lumbar and cervical spin. With an extraordinarily high bio availability, blood plasma levels will peak only 19 minutes after application. (source)

Black Pepper

Black pepper is used in many medacines and topicals for its synergistic effects.it helps to drive blood to the applied area and takes advantage of the "entourage effect", the ability of one compound to increase the bio availability of another. (source)

Clove Oil

The use of clove as an analgesic has been reported since the 13th century for join pain and antispasmodic.  Like peppermint, it effects receptors (TRP1 and VGSC) that detect the skin temperature differential, causing an anti-inflammatory response in the area of application. (source)

Clary Sage Oil

Similar to lavender oil, clary sage oil contains high levels of linalool and linalyl acetate, as well as separate polyphenols that have been proven to relieve symptoms of PMS and act as an antispasmodic. (source)

German Chamomile Oil 

Commonly used as an antispasmodic, German chamomile oil penetrates deeply into skin tissue, inhibiting inflammatory inducing chemicals (COX2 and  LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2)). (source)

Arnica

Arnica activates white blood cells in a localized area in order to promote healing in the extra-cellular matrix (the space between cells). It increases white blood cell migration to the applied area and can activate cellular regeneration by clearing out damaged nonfunctional cells (cellular apoptosis). (source)